GEISHA LIZA DALBY PDF

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Liza Dalby - ininenzero.cf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Dalby PDF books, here is also available other sources of this Geisha Liza Dalby. Geisha by Liza Dalby Pdf Book ePub eBookLibs co. Geisha, by Liza Crihfield Dalby (Berkeley: University of California Press,. ). This is a book that people in "Japanese studies" heard about long before it.


Geisha Liza Dalby Pdf

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At the top is the geisha mother. She provides all her girls with board and lodging, and the precious kimonos, a considerable outlay. In return, apart from a modest wage, the geisha give her all the money they earn form their clients. At one time, a geisha mother virtually owned her girls. They lived constantly in her debt. This discreet auction relied on her vast knowledge of the private lives and desires of her local clients.

But I think the stereotype evolved because there is a considerable amount of truth in it. Today, it is in the best interests of a geisha mother to treat her girls well. It costs her no less than , dollars to train a geisha. And if the geisha simply quits, the geisha mother loses a fortune. Apprentice geisha go through five years of training. By the end, even their gestures are distinctive. Every aspect of their appearance has acquired a symbolic meaning-and an erotic power.

Yuiko is an apprentice geisha, half way through her five year training. The most valuable person in her life is her older geisha sister, Mameka. All trainee geisha have an elder sister to teach them the centuries old skills they need to succeed. She can afford the very best including a million dollar membership to a country club and private coaching lessons. In a word, I get to do many enjoyable things in life.

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Mameka sets a high standard. To follow her example Yuiko has to dedicate her life to the art. The word geisha means artist. As well as being professional companions, a geisha must excel in dance, music and literature.

Every graceful movement is carefully choreographed. The dances often tell stories about Geisha who must sacrifice love for their art. A geisha requires the same dedication that a prima ballerina needs in the West. Yuiko: The training is never ending. Geisha do not marry, cut off from family bonds they live together, as if in sisterhood.

They form close friendships which bind them for life. Only one westerner has ever been allowed to become part of this closed way of life. Okamisan: A blue-eyed girl playing the shamisen, singing songs. It was the first time in geisha history. She got better at walking, sitting on her knees and wearing the kimono, she gradually became the part. Liza had immaculate qualifications to become a geisha. She spent her teenage years in Japan, learning the language and the shamisen--the traditional geisha instrument.

She then went on to make the first ever study of geisha for her doctorate before becoming a geisha herself. They are works of art; but they are also rented by the hour to entertain men. Artists by day, companions by night, the image of geisha has always been clouded by prostitution. From lowly beginning, geisha slowly rose in stature-until in time, they would reach the forefront of Japanese society.

Once sweethearts of samurai in the Second World War they waved goodbye to their kamikaze hero. How has the fragile world of the geisha retained status through years of turbulent history? And what became of those Geisha who believed they could escape their traditions and find true love in the west. To understand the geisha you have to know their past. Their story begins four centuries ago in the days of the Shogun. After centuries of infighting among rival warrior lords, Japan became a united country under a military dictator or Shogun.

The government was set up in Edo, site of present day Tokyo. Under Shogun rule, Japan isolated itself entirely from the rest of the world for hundreds of years. Arthur Golden: One of the things that this government which was very impressive, did, was to stamp out, for example Christianity and another was to take all of the prostitution and that kind of stuff and put it into restricted licensed quarters to control it.

The pleasure quarters became places of sexual freedom. Exclusive prostitutes or courtesans would entertain samurai warriors and merchants at lavish banquets. It was here that the first geisha appeared. Surprisingly, they were men. They assumed the role of court jester. Liza Dalby: These were entertainers who came into the parties that the courtesans had when they were entertaining customers at banquets, playing music, dancing, telling jokes, this kind of thing and these were originally men.

Arthur Golden: I think there must have been a great deal of rivalry between Geisha and prostitutes in those early years in the pleasure quarters. The prostitutes of course had the upper hand and did everything they could to control the activities of geisha, but the truth is that sex which was the prostitutes domain is where the real money was for a Geisha.

The kenban prevented the geisha from entering prostitution. Liza Dalby: And from the very beginning of the profession of geisha they were not supposed to be in competition with the courtesans and the prostitutes, and you would see the government controlled this very strictly. You would see continuing edicts from the government that geisha were not supposed to be prostitutes. Regulations made the appearance of the geisha much plainer.

For a while only dowdy women were chosen as new geisha recruits. Arthur Golden: The traditional image of a Geisha in the West has often been confused with what is in the fact a prostitute from the eighteen hundreds. The look of a prostitute and the look of a geisha are in fact fairly distinct, the geisha wears her obi as the sash across the middle is called tied in the back. Young wear shorter ones, but their always tied at the back.

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Under these regulations geisha prospered. Geisha districts spread across the country as Japan continued to shut out the rest of the world. Anyone caught fleeing from the country was beheaded.

Outsiders were either regarded as something less than human, or as corrupt. Into this closed world came the first American Consul, Townsend Harris. He landed at Shimoda Bay in August His mission was to negotiate and sign the first trade treaty with Japan. Richard Rush: He found a country that was like it was years earlier.

It was as apart from the rest of the world. They wanted to have nothing to do with nay of the other nations of the world. Townsend Harris wanted to change that and he met all sorts of resistance. I myself would have turned around and gone back to the United States. But he did. He was a very persistent man. During his negotiations, Harris asked the Mayor to send him a geisha.

When just the touch of a foreigner was thought abhorrent this was an outrageous demand. But Townsend Harris was insistent. A young geisha called Okichi was chosen. Richard Rush: Okichi was geisha, she was very good looking and she was very talented. The Mayor of the town thought that Townsend Harris liked her, so the mayor decided that this was the one to send, and he tried to persuade her but it was very difficult.

In the end he ordered her to go over there and she went. Her reluctance was short lived. Okichi fell in love with Townsend Harris and so became the first geisha to fall in love with a westerner. A century later, their romance inspired a Hollywood movie starring John Wayne as an unlikely Townsend Harris. Moive: Just as this barbarian from the West as they called him was the first man to raise an American flag on Japanese soil-strange affairs behind closed doors of the geisha, the shoguns palace, lavish beyond words.

The Japanese authorities had hoped Okichi might become an informant for them. She became very quickly attached to Townsend Harris. After 5 years of negotiation, Townsend Harris successfully secured the trade treaty.

He then prepared to return home. Okich: American so far away. Unlike the movie, reality was not romantic. It appears that Townsend Harris forgot all about Okichi, making no reference to her in his journal. Abandoned, Okichi was left to face the taunts of the townspeople who branded her a dirty foreigner. The first Geisha to have a love affair with a Westerner, collapsed into alcoholism, and finally drowned herself. But the geisha of Shimoda, unlike Townsend Harris, has not forgotten her.

Each year, Emi, returns to the place where she died. We burn incense and pay respect to her every year. After years of oppressive Shogun rule, a group of Samurai warriors planned to overthrow the government. They used the geisha tea houses as their secret meeting places. With the support of the geisha, the samurai defeated the ruling Shogun. When Emperor Meiji took over the throne in the geisha were now allied to the most powerful group in the country.

Western technology brought Asia into the age of steam, young men cut off their ponytails, and wore bowler hats.

By the s geisha numbers swelled to 25, Within a few years, a confident Japan had defeated Russia over the control of Korea. During the delicate negotiations that followed, a banquet was thrown for the Russian General Kurapathchin.

A famous geisha called Okoi was brought in to entertain him. During her dance, the Russian General demanded that she hand him her obi sash. Okoi, flatly refused.

Her defiance impressed Prime Minister Tarakatsura so much, he made her his mistress. Geisha now began to have intimate access to the highest powers in the land. For the first time in history great men took geisha as their wives. The Japanese foreign minister Baron Mutsu, married twice, both times to geisha. Ian Mutsu: Well, they made better wives than the daughters of regular households because they were trained rigorously to serve the males in a gracious way, and graceful and to keep secrets.

Whatever was said in the presence of a geisha would not be repeated, specially repeated in any embarrassing way, so this was an important factor, sealed lips of the geisha. Geisha were now the epitome of style and had unrivalled status. The Jazz Age had arrived in Japan. Showgirls strutted on state and night clubs opens their doors to a country eager for the latest Western fashion.

They provided informal company for men who were cheaper than geisha, and daringly modern. For the first time in their history, the geisha faced a serious threat. Liza Dalby: It was like a real turning point for them, they themselves, theymade a conscious decision that they were not bar hostesses, in order to preserve what made them geisha they were going to sort of hang onto the traditional dance, traditional music, and traditional forms of entertainment.

Geisha had become curators of tradition rather than fashion innovators which was their social role before. Luckily of the geisha, the Jazz age would be short lived.

In Emperor Hirohito took the throne and under his reign Japan became a leading military power. Nationalism soon swept the nation. The old capital city of Kyoto, steeped in the past, enjoyed a surge of popularity. At its centre was Gion, the geisha district.

Arthur Golden: Gion is something of a trademark amongst geisha districts, that has the character of Mercedes or something. It is viewed as the district. Kyoto is the ancient capital and the seat of culture in many ways in Japan and where Tokyo is seen as an upstart.

Liza Dalby: Remember this as a time of great extravagance, for example is getting a new kimono every month or a man who was an industrialist calling ten or twelve geisha in an afternoon to go out and view cherry blossoms. There was just a lot of money, and people were very generous in supporting the geisha and supporting their arts and supporting their dancing, so you know times were very good.

But there was a dark side to this geisha hey-day. In Kyoto, the demand for geisha became so high that families from the countryside would sell of girls as young as seven or eight to the geisha houses. Bought like prime pieces of meat they were lucky if they ended up in the high class geisha district of Gion.

Here they became the legal property of their geisha mothers, who gained a reputation for being formidable and unscrupulous women. Shackled by their debt to the geisha mother for their training, their kimonos and board and lodging, these delicate flowers were virtual Prisoners. If a geisha tried to escape, townspeople would capture her, and send her back. Most geisha would be totally unprepared for this traumatic ordeal.

Arthur Golden: You know we have this idea that Geisha are trained in sex, I mean nothing could be further from the truth.

The event was very ritualistic. The man and the young girl would exchange sake cups and then a banquet was thrown in their honor. I asked, you know, what about the make-up, leave the make-up on, I said well, what if he wants to kiss you. She said, kiss you! Are you kidding? But the only freedom from the geisha house came if a geisha was to find a rich Danna or patron amongst her clients. The downside was the geisha could find themselves locked into life-long unions with men they did not love.

It was a very exclusive relationship and you entertained other customers but you know your patron was the only man that you had you know a sexual relationship with. The Gion district of Kyoto has produced the finest geihsa.

Apprentices from Gion are called Maikos. Their distinctive appearance has remained unchanged to the present day. Yuiko is nineteen years old, and has completed three years of her apprenticeship. When she first decided to become a Meiko, her father was horried. Yuiko: Everyone still has the old image of Gion being a tough place.

The , dollars that it will cost to train Yuiko and clothe her in beautiful kimonos are the price of admission to a life suspended halfway between the present and the past. Yuiko lives in a traditional geisha house where her name is written on a wooden block above the door.

The American anthropologist Liza Dalby conducted field research for fourteen months — on geisha culture and society, and published Geisha based on her doctoral dissertation Crihfield However, although Dalby studied the shamisen and provided an overview of music, several questions regarding music remained unanswered, particularly with the contemporary situation in mind.

Exactly how dedicated are geisha to musical study? How do their artistic abilities compare with professional stage musicians, and how are they viewed by professional performers and by their teachers?

What makes up the musical repertoire of the contemporary geisha, and are there genres or pieces unique to geisha communities? How are geisha taught music, and do their teachers address the musical needs of these unique performers? Do geisha themselves instruct or compose music, and under what circumstances is this done? What is the process for creating the musical component for banquet performances done each evening, and how are these skills acquired by or transmitted to younger geisha?

And, while some of the genres of music that geisha perform, such as kouta or nagauta, have been researched in some depth, the above socio-artistic questions have not been adequately addressed within ethnomusicological research even within the research of these genres. Today, kokyoku and zokkyoku types of pieces are done by these performers within the amusement districts, most of which fall within the domain of women. Art, if it does exist, is seen only to make the object the woman interesting and desirable, rather than a choice or way of life.

These images have been a part of American culture for at least a century and have served as inspiration for countless novels and films internationally. Actual geisha have little in common with these depictions, but this disparity in representation is understandable given the simple fact that very few people, Japanese or non-Japanese, have ever met or spoken with geisha.

Thus, geisha are women who are officially registered as geisha, geiko, or geigi through a central kumiai office affiliated with each separate hanamachi geisha district. Attempting to identify such geisha, particularly outside of Tokyo and Kyoto, was not an easy task.

Demographic records are not maintained at a comprehensive national level, and geisha are decreasing in number. Since all geisha in this performance are true geisha—accomplished musicians and dancers—it is limited to those geisha communities that the traditional arts community feels possess a high artistic level. This performance therefore served as an excellent resource for pinpointing contemporary geisha communities, and I concentrated my field research on those that were allowed to take part in this performance.

I too have presented this research in a variety of academic formats and have found that audiences still have difficulty embracing an alternative view of geisha as anything but objects or courtesans. I have found repeatedly that information emphasizing the importance of art for geisha is acknowledged as a mere footnote, if at all, and efforts made to clarify these issues tend to offer little resistance to the determination to condemn the institution of geisha past and present , and by extension, the general position of women in Japanese society.

Moreover, since American ideas and institutions often take little time to cross the Pacific, I found that Japanese perceptions of geisha have been shaped by these American ideas over time. The Geisha Myths What is a geisha? To Western eyes, a Geisha is only a hostess in a tea house.

But to the knowing Japanese, a Geisha is much more. Taught to please any man—and all men—she is delicate, or she is strong. Wise in the ways of the world when her man demands, or shy and silent.

In addition, with the definition the gei of geisha has been shifted from performing arts to social arts, a misunderstanding of gei in which music and dance are completely absent although many geisha possess great social skills as well.

And why not? In November , Gerald Ford had been the first American presi- dent to visit Japan, and the Japanese made this into a full state occasion, including an audience with the emperor, dinners with the prime min- ister,and the mobilization of thousands of flag-waving school children at every scenic spot hevisited. Ford's side trip to Kyoto, renowned repository of traditional Japanese culture,would have been incomplete without a banquet with geisha in attendance.

The Ford entourage accordingly was bundled into a fleet of black limousines and driven past the Kyoto Zoo and the Heian Shrine to a restaurant called Tsuruya, in the eastern hills of the city. Queen Elizabeth had been entertained at Tsuruya on her trip to Japan a few years earlier. The menus of these dinners, proudly saved by the restau- rant, show that both the president and the queen were served a raw dish, a vinegared dish, a boiled dish, a roasted dish, and so on in the Japanese sequence of formal banquet courses, but with Kobe beef and tempura thought to be more palatable to foreigners interspersed.

The geisha who attended President Ford's banquet came from three of the six Kyoto geisha communities: Gion, Pontocho, and Kami- shichiken. These three, though sometimes ranked in descending order thus, are all considered first-class.

On occasions when the city of Kyoto, or traditional Japan must be officially represented, in general, the geisha are diplomatically chosen from all three places. The geisha from these higher-ranked areas all know one another and their respec- tive mothers, but they are considerably more vague about the women in the three "lower" communities. Despite their status as first-class geisha, however, all of them were frisked by Secret Service men before entering the Tsuruya on the eve- ning of the Ford banquet.

Newsmen with television cameras traipsed across the tatami mats, vying with one another to shoot pictures of the president's attempts to eat with chopsticks, or the president being served sake by an apprentice geisha.

Liza Dalby - Geisha.pdf

At that timewas in California, finishing the proposal for my dis- I sertation researchon geisha as a Japanese social institution. I was par- by the pictures of our president in Time ticularly intrigued, therefore, and on the evening news, gamely enjoying his foreign sojourn in the company of two prim-faced maiko. Almost exactly one year later, sit- ting with my okasan in one of the private rooms of her inn, I asked if she remembered Ford's trip to Japan.

Do you know where they held that banquet, Okasan? You've been there it was the Tsuruya. One of those maiko was your older sister, Ichiume. That means I saw Ichiume before even heard of Pon- I tocho. Her face was in the news all over America. There was no doubt about it, the plump-cheeked one looking slightly bewildered was Ichiume.

The next time we met, I asked her what she thought of that banquet, and of President Ford. She replied that all she had done was pour sake into his cup once; then she was moved down to give another maiko a chance. Maiko arc generally rather quiet at large formal banquets. As gei- sha-in-training they are still learning the skills, and most of them have not built up the reservoir of experience necessary to feel at ease in front of high government officials or foreigners or both.

But a maiko doesn't have to be witty; it is quite enough if she sits demurely, looking like a beautiful painted doll. If she happens to be clever as well as pretty, that is to her advantage, but she is not expected to be a conversationalist. That can be left to an older geisha — who may have to dye her hair to achieve the desired glossy blackness but who, through years of experi- ence, knows the best way draw someone out with small talk.

Customers have their own pref- erences, though, so at less formal engagements the ratio of maiko to geisha varies greatly. Some men hardly notice the individual maiko "they all look the same with that white face paint" and instead call the geisha they have come to know and whose company they prefer.

But other customers savor the nostalgia of a romanticized past and love to be surrounded by these figures out of woodblock prints. Even in such cases, though, at least a few older geisha come along; a party of all maiko is inconceivable. Besides the fact that they are always chap- eroned, the conversation of a group of seventeen-year-olds is proba- bly interesting only to other seventeen-year-olds. However any arrangement is likely carefully banquets are planned, not to work when A hybrid "geisha party" foreigners are involved.

The very nature of the latter makes it likely that it will be included as a sine qua non of the former, although Westerners are usually more puzzled than enter- tained by geisha parties. It is nearly inevitable that the cues for eti- quette and enjoyment will clash head-on. For example, American curiosity is piqued by the maiko's painted face and gorgeous robes — and by those of the geisha, when the also geisha also happen to arrive in formal painted and bewigged attire.

But this initial fascination with the "unnatural" soon gives way to dis- taste. The most common American comment I have heard about gei- sha is that "they wear too much makeup for my taste.Prejudice and Prestige Success. At first, the maiko have little sense about this subtlety, so they wait to be directed by their older sisters. Besides thenumerous black-and-white rib- boned floral tributes.

Okamisan: Hana Chen was 19 when she came to this place. During the time I was in Pontocho.

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