This is a persian (Farsi) book by Ali Dashti titled Bisto se sal. The author criticizes Islam. ininenzero.cf .. Ali Dashti was therefore obliged to have Bist O Seh Sal (Twenty Three Years), his major work in this field, printed abroad. Ali Dashti Compiled and edited by Bahram Choobineh Publications Alborz pages ISBN:
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Twenty-three Years, by Iranian thinker Ali Dashti, is one of my I am happy to share this link to a PDF of the book which I have found online. Free PDF ebooks (user's guide, manuals, sheets) about Ali dashti 23 Bist o Seh Sal بيست و سه سال [Roman transliteration of and Persian for. 23 Years by Ali Dashti. by jimzbundMay 27, no comment http://www. ininenzero.cf
Abi Waqqas, embraced Islam. At Mecca members of both groups rallied to Mohammad and joined in praise of him and his ideas. Conflict between the two groups was bound to arise in the Meccan situation. The wealthy, who enjoyed the support of the majority of the people, were proud of their wealth and their money. The minority supporting Mohammad were convinced of the rightness of their cause, and in order to propagate it, they ascribed special faculties and merits to their leader.
The tendency to do this was kept within reasonable bounds during his lifetime but continually gathered strength after his death. Popular imagination soon dehumanized him and endowed him with the qualities of a son of God, cause of creation, controller of the universe. To show how most of these fantasies came into being and proliferated, an important example will be discussed.
The evidence in this case is clear and incontrovertible. Verse 1of sura 17 ol-Esra , which is one of the Meccan suras, was the source of the belief that the Prophet made a night journey to heaven. The words of the verse, however, are simple and rationally explicable: "Exalted is He who carried His servant by night from the Mosque of the Sanctuary to the Furthest Mosque, whose precincts We have blessed, so that We might show him some of Our signs.
He is all- hearing, all- seeing. Other instances of spiritual journey by visionary thinkers are known. In Moslem minds, however, this simple verse is overlaid with wondrous and rationally unacceptable myths. Was their purpose to explain the meaning and the occasion of the revelation of the verse, or to summarize the stories about it circulating among Moslems?
In any case, they cite no evidence that the Prophet ever said such things. The authors of the Hadith compilations took great pains to check the transmission of sayings ascribed to the Prophet, though this does not necessarily prove the reliability of the transmitters. The authors of the Tafsir ol-Jalalayndo not mention any source at all. This suggests that perhaps they did not believe the story which they were telling.
According to it, the Prophet said: "That night Gabriel came, bringing a quadruped bigger than a donkey and smaller than a mule, with outward-facing hoofs on its feet. I mounted it and rode to the House of the Sanctuary.
I tied Boraq's the animal's bridle on the ring on which prophets usually tied it. In the Furthest Mosque I lowered my head to the ground three times in prayer. When I came out, Gabriel brought two vessels to me, one filled with milk and one filled with wine.
I chose the one filled with milk, and Gabriel approved my choice.
Then we flew to the first heaven. At the gate of the first heaven a guard asked, 'Who is it?
Adam came to meet me and said, 'You are welcome. In the seventh heaven I saw Abraham reclining in the populous abode into which seventy thousand angels go every day and out of which none ever come. Next Gabriel took me to the last lote tree5 whose leaves were as big as elephant's ears and whose fruits were like. Then a revelation came ordering me to pray fifty times every day and night.
On my way back, the Prophet Moses said to me, 'Fifty prayers are too many. Ask the Lord to reduce them! The Lord granted a reduction to forty prayers. This time Moses said, 'I have tested the matter in my own community. The people cannot pray forty times every day and night. Even the Prophet's modern and generally rational biographer, Mohammad Hosayn Haykal 6 while denying that the night journey was a bodily ascension, presents the mythical account in a modified form taken from a book by Emile Dermenghem 7.
For in the same sura 17, whose first verse gave rise to the myth, the Prophet is told in verse 95 how to answer those who demanded a miracle from him: "Say 'Glory to my Lord! Am I other than a human, a messenger? Even on the assumption of such a need, why should a winged or air-borne quadruped have been provided?
Was the Furthest Mosque on the route to the heavens? Does God, who is omnipotent, have any need for prayers from His worshippers? Why had not the guards of the heavens been forewarned of the Prophet's journey? Credulous minds relate cause to effect without reference to reality. The Prophet needs a mount because he is going on a long journey; therefore the mount, while resembling a mule, has to possess some sort of wings to enable it to fly like a pigeon.
God wants to dazzle Mohammad with His Majesty and therefore commands Gabriel to show Mohammad the wonders of the heavens. Like a mighty king who orders his officials to collect higher taxes to meet the state's expenses, and whose finance minister warns against impoverishment of the subjects through over-taxation, the Lord demands prayers from the worshippers and His Prophet pleads that fifty prayers are too many.
Mohammad's greatness is unquestionable. If the social and political circumstances of his time are taken into account, he has no equal among the initiators of major historical change. They all had the support of the armed forces and public opinion of their peoples, whereas Mohammad made his way into history with empty hands and in a hostile society.
Perhaps Lenin can be rated the most potent man of the present century and compared with Mohammad. For nearly twenty years , with tireless energy and resourcefulness and with stubborn fidelity to his principles, he thought, wrote, kept remote control over revolutionary activities, and never relaxed , until he established the first communist state in the physically and socially unfavourable environment of Russia.
He certainly overcame huge internal and external obstacles. On the other hand, a revolutionary movement had been developing in Russia for half a century before him, and hundreds of thousands of revolutionaries and malcontents were ready to support him. Another striking difference is that he always lived in poverty or self-chosen austerity. It is natural and normal that legends about great men should arise after their deaths.
After a time their weak points are forgotten and only their strong points are remembered and passed on. The lives of many thinkers and artists were by no means morally irreproachable, but their works survive and are admired.
We do not know how Nasir od-Din Tusi 8 managed to become a minister to the Mongol conqueror Hulagu Khan 9 but even if his expedients were immoral, his scientific writings have made him an honoured son of Iran. No wonder, then, that after the death of a great spiritual leader imaginations should get to work and endow him with a profusion of virtues and merits.
The trouble is that this process does not stay within reasonable limits but becomes vulgarized, commercialized, and absurd. Even if such events occrured at that time, how could they be effects of the Prophet's birth and how could they be warnings from God? Reason, observation, and mathematics require effects to have causes. All the world's phenomena, whether physical, social, or political, have causes.
Sometimes these seem obvious; sunshine gives warmth and light, fire burns if not obstructed, water flows downward unless it can be pumped upward. Sometimes they are not obvious and have only been discovered through long effort, such as the causes of thunder and lightning or diseases and cures.
Between the birth of a child at Mecca and the extinction of temple-fires in Iran, no relation of cause and effect is possible. If a crack appeared in the arch at Ctesiphon, it must have been due to subsidence. Yet how could the Iranian king or the Zoroastrian priests have recognised the cracking of the arch and extinction of the fires as indications of the birth of a child who was only to begin his religious mission forty years later? Why should God, who is wise and understanding, have wanted the Iranians to take heed of Islam forty years before Mohammad was appointed to preach it?
If God had wished to signal the extraordinary importance 15 of Mohammad's birth, why did He give no sign to the Meccans? In His omnipotence He could have caused the Ka'ba's roof to fall and its idols to topple, which would have been a stronger warning to the Qorayshites than the extinction of fires in faraway temples.
In any case, why was not the Prophet's appointment accompanied by a miracle which would have convinced all the Qorayshites and spared God's chosen messenger from thirteen years of enmity and persecution? Why was not a light sited in the heart of King Khosraw Parviz 11 I to guide him to the true faith and dissuade him from tearing up the Prophet's letter?
The Iranians would then have been guided by their king's example, and they would have become Moslems without having to suffer defeat at the battles of Qadesiya and Nehavand. Many years ago, I read the Vie de Jesus of the great French writer Ernest Renan , who has painted a realistic and vivid portrait of the Messiah with masterly skill. Sometime later, I came across another book, entitled Son of Man, whose painstaking German author, Emil Ludwig, claimed that it is as factual as any book on the subject can be when reliable historical documentation is so scarce.
In the present short work, I do not attempt to give a full account of twenty three of the sixty three years of the Prophet Mohammad's life. Without false modesty, I do not see myself as possessing Ernest Renan's talent and sensitivity or Emil Ludwig's patience and capacity for research, all of which qualities would be needed in plenty for adequate portrayal of a man whose spiritual and moral strength changed the course of human history.
My purpose in this short work is to sketch an outline and to dispel a phantom. To be more precise and candid, I admit that part of the impulse to write it came to me from a psychological theory or rather observation.
This is that belief can blunt human reason and common sense. As we all know, ideas which have been inculcated into a person's mind in childhood remain in the background of his or her thinking. Consequently he or she will want to make facts conform with inculcated ideas which have no rational validity. Even learned scholars, with rare exceptions, are burdened with this handicap and inhibited rrom using their common sense; or if they use it, they only do so when it corroborates their inculcated ideas.
Mankind is gifted with faculties of perception and ratiocination which make solution of scientific problems possible, but in matters of religious and political beliefs ready to trample on the - evidence of reason and even of the senses. He was a fatherless and motherless orphan living in the house of his paternal uncle, Abu Taleb, a man who had a kind heart but little material wealth.
In order that he might be occupied and help to pay for his keep, he was given the task of taking came1Sowned by Abu Taleb and others into the plain to graze. He thus spent his days in the grim desert outside Mecca all alone. He would naturally ask himself why he had come into the world as a fatherless orphan and had so soon lost the young mother to whom alone he could turn for love and caresses. He would wonder too why blind fate had taken away his strong and generous grandfather and sent him for refuge to his uncle's house.
Farid Esack. Its History and Place in Muslim Life. Ingrid Mattson. Answering Islam: The Crescent in Light of the Cross. Norman L. Product details Paperback: Mazda Pub; 1st edition June 1, Language: English ISBN Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on site Don't have a site? Share your thoughts with other customers.
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A customer 5. Although I had the sense throughout that 'Ali Dashti was tempering many of his scholarly conclusions to suit the easily outraged, his text still comes across as blisteringly blasphemous. It is not surprising that 'Ali Dashti "disappeared" in his home country of Iran when considering the unorthodox approach he takes by interpreting much of the Qur'an as a product of the Prophet Muhammad's psychology. While Dashti doesn't explicitly renounce Islam, he vigorously attacks precepts which he sees as hideous relicts of the age the Prophet Muhammad lived.
While other biographers of the Prophet, especially those writing to proselytize, might be expected to gloss over the Prophet's assassinations, mass slaughters of prisoners, and otherwise Machiavellian behavior Dashti puts it to the light.
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But at the same time, he doesn't neglect to mention the more positive aspects of the Prophet's personality while attempting to cut through the underbrush of the deification of the Prophet. All in all a refreshing read, though certainly one would do well to read several biographies in comparison. Paperback Verified download. This book indeed is a great read and for anyone who is interested in an honest evaluation of Muhammed and his Islam, please read this brave work!! If you want some sycophant rubbish that only paints Muhammed as some kind of benevolent social worker, please go read Karen Armstrong or John Esposito!
This book tells the good and bad qualities of Muhammed in a restrained fashion and yet whilst reading this book, one cannot help but be touched by the fact that this brave soul Mr. Dashti, was tortured to death by the very menace he was criticising One would hope that Tony Blair and Pres.
Bush would have this book on their night stand Dashti died according to Islamic teachings that he rightly rebuked in his tome her We need more brave writers like this chap!! At this point in the letter, the Imam refers to his deputy as dim-witted and with the customary language of an akhund addresses Montazeri, "Since you are a simpleton", you must remain home, "perchance God would pardon you your sins. So that you would not burn in the depth of hell, you should confess your mistakes and sins perchance God would aid you.
In response to this insulting letter, the deputy of Imam Khomeini, the illustrious Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, wrote most pathetically and meekly, "Please allow me to continue my studies and teachings as before, like a small and insignificant seminarian, under the wise shadow of your exalted leadership.
However, the truth was something else. In letters of Ayatollah Borujerdi, communications or speeches of Ayatollah Khomeini prior to 15 Khurdad [Islamic Revolution], and among the memoirs of various clerics that presently are being published by the Islamic regime in Iran, very often we see that the Shah was warned that he owed his throne to the "militant clerics" and their efforts against Dr.
Mossadegh's government. In some letters, we note that they caution the Shah that if he were to undertake any act that would displease the clerics or jurists, they had the power and ability to remove him from the throne. His son, Dr. Mehdi Hairi-Yazdi studied in Qum and later continued his advanced studies in western philosophy in England, the United States and Canada. He remained in the west continuing to teach and research in philosophy.
Habib Ladjevardi has captured Dr. Some of these memoirs relate to events after the 28 Mordad coup, the role of clerics, the fall of Dr. Mossadegh, and the collusion of the Shah with the clerics in running the country. They are most illuminating in understanding the evolution of modern politics and religion in Iran. Regarding the issue of velayat-e faqih [the rule of religious jurists], Dr.
Mehdi Hairi-Yazdi states, "The way [the Islamic Republic] has understood this has no basis whatsoever. At least I have not been able to find any evidence in logic, sacred books or traditions to support this notion. For instance, he did not approve of Dr. However, when the Shah returned from Italy, Borujerdi approved him. Mossadegh showed him great respect, to the point that he used his position to pass a special legislation for Borujerdi which would result in immediate closure of any newspaper that insulted the person of the "object of emulation".
This law was passed solely for Borujerdi. It even caused annoyance to Ayatollah Kashani. In fact, one of the reasons that Kashani disassociated himself from Dr.
Mossadegh was this very legislation and the feeling that Dr. Mossadegh had sided with Borujerdi. Hairi-Yazdi relates a recollection of Ayatollah Mir Siyyid Muhammad Behbahani which is most interesting and instructive.
He states, "On the morning of 28 Mordad, the sun had not risen, when the phone rang. Go before Borujerdi and convey to him on my behalf, "Master, the country is on the verge of dismemberment.
Soon it will be ruined because there is talk of forming a republic. The Shah has left and any day now, the country will plummet into chaos and disorder. Certainly, the nation would fall onto the other side of the Iron Curtain. No name will remain of religion; no name of him [Borujerdi]; no mention of religious guidance; no memory of principles of the faith. The country will become communist. He should devise a plan. Perhaps a communication, or a ruling, so that people would be aware of the truth of matters and would come and oppose the Tudehs.
Bisto se sal (Ali Dashti)
In short, do not allow the country to become communist. A question was asked of Dr. Hairi-Yazdi responded: At that time, Khomeini was one of the confidants of Borujerdi. In fact, it was widely acknowledged that he was Borujirdi's foreign minister. This was at a time when he had not, as yet, come to blows with Borujerdi.
At least on one occasion during that incident, Khomeini went to the court and met with the Shah on Borujerdi's behalf.We need more brave writers like this chap!! Subheadings have been added in the translation to assist with the flow. When the Iranian revolution occurred two years later, Dashti published a book named "The Fall Factors", a critical analysis of the Pahlavi dynasty exploring the reasons behind its downfall. Many participated because they feared others or the general atmosphere of the society.
The documents were published in the "Siasat" newspaper at that time in which the British ambassador was ordering some to financially support Dashti in return for his service. Next Gabriel took me to the last lote tree5 whose leaves were as big as elephant's ears and whose fruits were like.
Parliamentary politics in revolutionary Iran: Answering Islam: He reiterated this request in and If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support?