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The analyses provide promising results. Additionally, the results indicated that Channel the head loss across the screen increased with increasing flow discharge and blockage ratio.

Low head losses were recorded at low screen angles for the circular bars. A new head loss equation is recommended for triangular screens with circular bars.

Introduction Trash screens are commonly used to trap debris in streams. Peer review under responsibility of Cairo University. Zayed et al. Trash screens are used to prevent This paper presents a screen development concept that maxi- such hazards associated with debris accumulation. As reported by mizes the hydraulic performance and reduces the hydraulic prob- Blanc [6], controlling debris using trash screens has been studied lems caused by traditional screens perpendicular—vertical screen, by numerous investigators [7—11].

In The challenges related to trash screens are that they can be this method, the screen was designed with a triangular V shape blocked by debris accumulations and can cause head losses. Trash based on the flow direction. Additionally, success criteria that gov- screen blockage and losses can have serious hydraulic, environ- ern the screen conditions and a new head loss equation are mental and economic consequences. The accumulation process introduced. In particular, debris enlargements produce improper screen Based on different screen wall angle configurations shapes, and functioning, resulting in a possible increase in the upstream water blockage ratios, the various results were analyzed.

Moreover, debris accumulation at the screen can be a signif- Methodology icant problem that increases the downstream velocity and creates scouring [13], breaks down turbines and hydroelectric generation Experimental setup plants [14,15] and yields incorrect predictions for irrigation engineers. All experimental runs were conducted with a trash screen Head loss is a vital factor in how a trash screen is designed.

The model in a recirculating, Notably, the screen head loss is the major part of the concrete. The flume was attached with a head tank. A constant total head loss [12]. Flow through trash screens has been investi- underground reservoir was provided to supply the flume with gated by various researchers [16—26], and previous studies treated water through a 5-inch pipe.

Then, the water entering the flume the screen as a traditional screen without a shape, i. The flow was circulated pendicular—vertical screen inclined from the bed or angled from through the system by two 5-in. A tailgate was attached at the downstream end of the chan- Meusburger [27], as cited by Raynal et al.

The flow discharges, which were loss formula for an angled screen, as given in Eq. The model was scaled to simulate the most appropriate method. Ideally, the selected ranges of the discharges represented the wall, v is the approach flow velocity, and g is gravitational relatively low, moderate, and high flows that could be created with acceleration. The screens Clark et al. The tests examined the effect of the bar shape, angle of The screen models, which were vertically installed to the chan- the approach flow and blockage ratio.

All screens were 25 cm in height, whereas the lengths where Dh is the head loss, g is the bar shape factor, h is the were different as a result of the screen angles. The screens were approach flow angle, B is the blockage ratio, v is the approach flow composed of circular mild steel bars 3 mm in diameter and with velocity, and g is gravitational acceleration.

The circular bars were used to make the screen angle Wahl [23] presented Eq. Four different blockage ratios 0.

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The blockage ratio B can be described by Eq. Available formulae for calculating screen head loss under differ- ent settings have been presented by various researchers Ab [19,25,26,29—31]. A 3-D Vectrino device was used head tank, the tailgate was adjusted to predefine the gate opening. To minimize the potential Then, flow passed through the system. In both the center of the errors of fluctuations in the flow rate, an appropriate length of time flume and near the wall of the flume, the upstream and down- surpassed to establish steady conditions.

The conditions were stream water depths h1 and h2, respectively were measured allowed to stabilize for 15 min before testing. Then, the aver- age of h1 and h2 was calculated to avoid errors for each configura- tion. The test was repeated again with another blockage ratio. Experimental procedure Then, the experiment was repeated with another screen angle.

Finally, the head loss was calculated, and the head loss coefficient The considered parameters, screen angles of the triangular was extrapolated using Eq. Clearly, the results are similar for all the discharge tions, the measurements were evaluated at different points during coefficients.

The mean absolute error associated with blockage ratio of 0. Therefore, it is evident that by increasing the blockage ratio on the head losses were studied for various settings.

The paired t-test discharge, b is the channel width, v is the approach flow velocity, a results are presented in Table 1. As shown in Table 1, significant is the screen angle from the wall, B is the blockage ratio, and g is differences between the screen angles according to the head loss gravitational acceleration. Consequently, the results con- The head loss coefficient Dhc was expressed above in Eq. The results indicate that Fr ranges between 0. Furthermore, low Dhc values result in consistently low gh1 screen angles for different blockage ratios.

As a result, it is evident where v, g, and h1 are the approach flow velocity, gravitational that head loss increases with discharge and thus the approach acceleration, and upstream water depth, respectively. Therefore, the flow discharge is considered an important parameter, and the head loss is a function of discharge. Results and discussion Effect of the blockage ratio A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess how the triangu- lar screen angles, unit discharge, and blockage ratio affect the The blockage ratios 0.

In addition, Dhc is similar for all the tested screen mod- different test arrangements. A paired t-test statistical analysis was used to the head loss coefficients. For each blockage ratio, Dhc decreases determine the statistically significant difference between screen with decreasing triangular screen angle a.

In other words, the blockage ratios based on the obtained head loss values, and the large gaps in the triangular screen with circular bars have a higher results are detailed in Table 2. Table 2 shows that significant statis- tendency to reduce the head loss coefficients than do small gaps. Relationships between the head loss coefficients and screen angles for different discharge coefficients and blockage ratios of a 0.

In fact, for all the tested models, the exhibited a good fit with the experimental test data.

All contribut- head loss is a function of the blockage ratio. The form of Derivation of a new empirical equation Eq. Therefore, the screen head loss can easily be obtained by the non-dimensionality of terms, to develop a new equation for applying the proposed equation in the tested range of parameters.

The comparison yielded a high were correlated to establish the new head loss Eq. Thus, the derived Eq. It could be notable to verify the determination coefficient R2 value of 0. This equation can be used to estimate the head loss of triangular screens with circular bars.

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This result may be due to the water excitation forces that affect the debris orientation toward the sides and facilitate the flow of the waterway through the screen. Please verify that you are not a robot.

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The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format. site Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go.J Hydraul Res ;47 2 — Trash based on the flow direction.

S DEC We found that, as was foresee- bodies to increase with Re. Curve b corresponds to the discharge condition according to Eq. Flow expressions for sharp-edged ori- fices were obtained by considering friction head losses negligible, In a transition with identical sections at each end and disregard- so they are due exclusively to separation effects and, therefore, are ing the differences of elevation between their centroids, the coef- concentrated where the streamlines are divergent see the diagram ficient is determined by in Fig.

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